Political Economy of Education
We will be adding to this page regularly, filling in holes and creating new
threads of lineage in the history and debates about the political economy
of education. Any suggestions or
pointers to useful on-line documents will be gratefully received.
Part I: Philosophers on Education
Part II: Earlier Economists on Education
- Adam Smith,
"Of the Expense of the Institutions for
the Education of Youth"
[pdf file] and
"Of the Expense of the Institutions for the Instruction of People of all Ages"
from Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations(1776).
Smith (1723-1790), economist, student and then professor at
Glasgow University in
Scotland, best known for his Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of
the Wealth of Nations(1776). In the English speaking world Smith is
generally thought of as the father of laissez-faire economics. For
some of my commentaries on various aspects of his work see my
Lectures Notes on Classsical Economics.
- Robert Owens,
A New View of Society, or, Essays on the Principle of the Formation of
Human Character, and the Appliction of the Principle to
[edited pdf version].
Owen (1771-1858) was a Welsh industrialist and social reformer.
His criticisms of capitalism grew out of his experience in and with
the business practices of his day and led him to both experiment with
alternative institutions and to write about his ideas in an attempt to
influence policy makers into making the reforms he felt necessary on a
much broader scale. His first major writing was A New View of Society.
In that work he lays out his basic principle: that in dealing with both
adults and children one can so change their environment and the ways
they are dealt with as to bring about fundamental changes in their
- John Stuart Mill,
On Liberty (1859) (excerpts).
Mill (1806-1873), economist, utilitarian philosopher, employee of the
East India Company, best known for his Principles of Economics, his
essays on utilitarianism and On Liberty from which these passages
dealing with education have been drawn. Mill's own education by his father
was notoriously strick, albeit producing striking results. Mill eventually
told of the discipline to which he was subjected in his
Autobiography that stands as an exemplar of how NOT to educate
- William Stanley Jevons,
- The Theory of Political Economy (1871),
especially, the section
in Chapter 8's "Concluding Remarks" subtitled
The Noxious Influence of Authority
[pdf file] and
Appendix II on Capitalisation.
"The Importance of Diffusing a Knowledge of Political Economy (1866)"
- "Trades Societies Their Objects and Policy" (1868),
[pdf file] from
Methods of Social Reform, 1883.
Jevons (1835-1882), English economist, educated at University College
London, but also self-taught in economics, one of the three "fathers"
(along with Walras and Menger) of
mathematical economics and of the
"marginalist revolution" that abandoned the labor theory of value and
produced modern microeconomics. His work on capital accumulation and his
observations of class conflict in England led him to advocate expanded
education among workers, partly to raise their productivity and partly to
convince them - and their Trades Unions - to accept their lot, especially
to not try to raise their wages more rapidly than increases in their
efficiency would allow. For more of my own commentary on Jevons see my
Lecture Notes on the marginalist revolution.
- Alfred Marshall,
Chapter VI of Book IV of his Principles of Economics (1890).
(1842-1924), dominant English-speaking economist of the late 19th and early
20th Centuries, contributor and popularizer of the "marginalist revolution".
is often seen as the major figure in the spread and acceptance of "economics"
as a profession and science. Educated at St.John's College, Cambridge, Marshall
became Professor of Political Economy at Cambridge
University in England. Such famous economists as A.C. Pigou and John
Maynard Keynes were among his pupils. In the passage from his famous
Principles provided here, we find the kind of "economist's"
preoccupation with education - its contribution to industrial productivity
growth - that became characteristic of the profession in the 20th Century.
- Thorstein Veblen,
"The Higher Learning as an Expression of the
Pecuniary Order," [pdf version]
Chapter 14 of
The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899),
The Higher Learning In America:
A Memorandum On the Conduct of
Universities By Business Men (1918),
[pdf file of abridged text],
"The War and Higher Learning" (1918)
Veblen (1857-1929), Norwegian-American farmer-turned-economist was one
of the most erudite and sharp-witted social critics of the 20th Century.
Educated at Carleton College and then at Yale, Veblen was particularly
adroit at skewering the pretensions of the wealthy and illuminating much
that was being ignored by the emerging economics profession. Moreover, he
was particularly adept at doing so
in the vernacular, in a language millions could understand and appreciate
in books such as his famous Theory of the Leisure Class. His
book-length essay on Higher
Learning was written after teaching at the University of Chicago - a
school built with Rockefeller money, whose president of that time typified
for Veblen the educational entrepreneur and a school that has become widely
known for its Economic Department's embrace of free-market gospel. The
pdf version of the essay provided here has been edited down to almost half
the length of the original. If you enjoy the edited version you'll want to
read the whole thing and see what you have missed.
- Upton Sinclair,
The Goose-step: A Study of American Education (1922) and
The Goslings: A Study of American Schools (1924).
Upton Sinclair (1878-1968) was no economist, but rather an investigative journalist -
a "muckraker" for those who didn't like the results of his investigations.
In The Goose-step, however, he illustrated in great detail much
of what Thorstein Veblen analyzed - with far fewer illustrations- in his Higher
Learning. In The Goslings Sinclair extended his investigations from
colleges and universities to American elementary and secondary schools. In both cases
he piled case study on case study to demonstrate both how business controlled
education and the nasty consequences for both teachers and students - and thus, for
the American people as a whole.
Part III: The Struggle for the Curriculum
B. Developmentalism vs the Humanists & hierarchy
- The "humanist" mental disciplinarians of the 19th Century
1828 Report [the Yale] Faculty Committee in 1828 ("discipline and furniture of the mind")
- Charles Elliot: humanism, electivism and the
Report of the
Committee of Ten in 1893
William Torrey Harris and the Committee of Fifteen in 1895
- Post-WWII resurgence
- Bernard Iddings Bell, Crisis in Education (1949) and
Mortimer Smith, And Madly Teach (1949)
- Arthur E. Bestor, Jr., Educational Wastelands (1953)
C. Studying for Jobs
- G. Stanley Hall and "The Contents of Children's Minds" (1883)
- National Herbart Society & culture-epoch theory; from primitive man to superman
- Charles Francis Adams (1879), study geared to children's initiatives
- John Dewey, Chicago and the Laboratory School
- social occupations vs culture-epochs
D. Studying for Social Improvement
- Joseph Mayer Rice & Scientific Management
- The "social efficiency" educators
- Edward A. Ross and Social Control (1901)
- Leonard Ayres, Laggards in Our School (1909) and
- John Franklin Bobbitt, "The Elimination of Waste in Education" (1912),
The Curriculum (1918)
- Charles A. Ellwood and social control
- IQ: from Francis Galton to Ross Finney,
-tracking and the futility of upward social mobility
- David Snedden, Charles Kingsley, Werrett Wallace Charters, et. al.
- Subordination of education to patriotism & war: WWII
- What High Schools Ought to Teach (1940): work,
school's output = workers
- "life adjustment education" - adjusting life for work
- Subordination of education to patriotism & war: Cold War
- Cold WarVice Admiral Hyman Rickover and Cold War demand for more science
- National Defense Education Act (1958)
- OSS, Ford Foundation and the Rise of Area Studies
- foreign language and empire (from Shadowwork)
- David Horowitz, "Sinews of Empire", Ramparts Magazine,
E. Debates over Religion, Science & Sex in the School Curriculum
- From Plato to the 19th Century
- Lester Frank Ward, Dynamic Sociology & education for social progress vs social Darwinism
- The demand for standardization, efficiency and measurement
- John Dewey, George Counts and Herold Rugg and the Great Depression
- Dewey vs the "religion of prosperity" and complacency with the status quo
- Count's "Dare Progressive Education be Progressive" (1932) & Dare the Schools Build a New Social Order? (1932)
- Social Frontier (1934-1943) vs evils of laissez-faire capitalism and individualism
- Herold Rugg and the Social Science Pamphlets
- The Constitution of the United States: pro-separationist
Study Guide: Separation of Church and State.
- The Debate over School Prayer
- From The Scopes Trial (1925) through the Creationist attack on the Theory of Evolution to the Debate over Intelligent Design
- Sex education in the hyper-sexual society
"Sex Education" - introduction to the issue and the debate w/many links to associated topics.
"Psychosexual Development" - a brief introduction to the Freudian theory
of sexual development in the child.
- James W. Prescott,
and the Origins of Violence", from The Futurist,
April 1975 and reprinted in The Bulletin of the Atomic
Scientists, November 1975, pp. 10-20.
- Henry Giroux,
"Teenage Sexuality, Body Politics and the Pedagogy of Display"
- Guttmacher Institute,
"Sex Education: Politicians, Parents, Teachers and Teens" from
The Guttmacher Report on Public Policy, Vol. 4, No. 1, February
2001. Also available in
The Content of Federally Funded Abstinence-only Education Programs,
a report prepared for Rep. Henry Waxman (December 2004).
- Melissa Pardue,
"Waxman Report is Riddled with Errors and Inaccuracies,"
Heritage Foundation, December 2, 2004.
- Society for Adolescent Medicine,
"Abstinence-only education policies and programs: A Position Paper",
Journal of Adolescent Health, Vol. 38, 2006, pp. 83-87.
- Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States,
"New Abstinence Program Shows Some Results, Shortcomings, (2010)
Part IV: Business, Factories and Schools
A. Factories & Scientific Management
B. Education & Scientific Management
- Frederic Taylor, The Principles of Scientific Management,
(Introduction & Chapter 1),
- Scientific Management from Detroit to Moscow
C. From Scientific Management to Human Capital
- Flashback: Nietzsche,
"The Future of Our Educational Institutions" (1872),
critical excerpts on
"efficient" state management of education.
- Raymond E. Callahan, Education and the Cult of Efficiency: A
Study of the Social Forces that have Shaped the Administration of the
Public Schools, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962.
(In print: ISBN: 0-226-09150-3 (paperback). Read
Chapter 1: The Prelude 1900-1910,
Chapter 5: The Educational Efficiency Experts in Action,
Chapter 10: An American Tragedy in Education .
- Speed-up: An industrial strategy applied to schools
- Contemporary administrative structures and hierarchy
D. Wages, Salaries and Hierarchies of Control
- Flashback: Adam Smith,
"Of the Expense of the Institutions for the Education of Youth" >
[pdf file] from Inquiry
into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776).
- Flashback: Alfred Marshall,
Chapter VI of Book IV of his Principles of Economics (1890).
- Robert Solow, "Technical Change and the Aggregate Production
Function," The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 39,
No. 3 (August 1957), pp. 312-320.
- Theordore Schultz & Gary Becker: Applying Human Capital Theory to Education & Welfare
- Theodore W. Schultz,
"Investment in Human Capital," The American Economic Review,
Vol. 51, No. 1, March 1961, pp. 1-17.
For further discussion by Schultz, see his book
The Economic Value of Education," Columbia University Press, 1963.
- Gary S. Becker, "Human Capital", essay in the
Concise Encyclopedia of Economics, (no date)
[pdf version]. For further
discussion by Becker, see his book:
Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, with Special Reference to Education, 1st edition: 1975, 3rd edition: University of Chicago Press, 1994.
- N.Gregory Mankiw, David Romer and David N. Weil, "A Contribution to the
Empirics of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol.
107, No. 2 (May, 1992), pp. 407-437.
- George Caffentzis,
"Throwing Away the Ladder,"
Zerowork #1, 1975,
- Wages & Salaries; Workers & Managers
- Corporate Ladders, Tenure Tracks and Lecturers/Adjuncts
Part V: Grading and Testing, Grades and Test Scores, Effects
A. Evaluation, Grading and Testing in Courses
B. Standardized Testing, Graduation & Admissions
- The history of the evaluation of students
- The impact of tests and grades on student and teacher behavior
"Making the Grade Revisited"
This essay appeared as the
introduction to a new printing of Howard S. Becker, Blanche Geer, and
Everett C. Hughes, Making the Grade, a book originally published
in 1968. As this introduction makes clear, Becker and his
co-authors examined, from a sociological viewpoint, the behaviors
provoked among students by the exterior imposition of grades by teachers
and administrators in an analysis akin to that used by James Scott in his
analyses of peasant resistance under conditions in which overt rebellion
is extremely difficult. The intro also calls for investigation into the
behavior of administrators - with Veblen's Higher Learning as
a point of reference.
- Alfie Kohn, Punished by Rewards: The Trouble with Gold Stars, Incentive
Plans, A's, Praise, and Other Bribes, New York: Houghton Mifflin Co.,
1993, Chapter 8: Lures for Learning: Why
Behaviorism Doesn't Work in the Classroom and
Chapter 11: Hooked on Learning: The Roots
of Motivation in the Classroom.
- Amanda Ripley,
"Should Kids be Bribed to Do
Well in School?", Time Magazine, April 8, 2010. (Cover Story)
- Mariarosa Dalla Costa,
Women and the Subversion of
the Community, 1971.
- The Wages for Students Students,
Wages for Students, 1975.
- Harry Cleaver,
"On Schoolwork and the Struggle Against It" Revision #2, Spring 2006.
- The impact of tests and grades on promotion and tracking
C. "Accountability" and the Testing & Evaluation of Teachers
- The rise of standardized testing
- The role of standardized tests in certification
- The role and debate over the use of standardized test scores in admissions
- Teacher education and certification
- Post-certification testing and the debate over re-qualification
- The history of tenure for university professors and the attack on tenure
Part VI: Questions of Discrimination & Diversity (Racial, gender,
A. Racial Segregation: Then and Now
B. Discrimination & Diversity in K-12
- The Concept of Race
- Racial segregation, defined as the "separation of different racial groups
in daily life", can be found all over the world. See Wikipedia article on "Racial
- Racial Segregation and slavery: the first, and most overt form of racial
segregation in the United States was slavery and it was rationalized by racist
ideologies. However, racial discrimination has not alays been rationalized with
the concept of race. See main Wikipedia article on "Slavery".
- Stephen Jay Gould,
"The Geometer of Race", Discover Magazine, November 1, 1994.
- American Association of Physical Anthropologists,
"Statement on Biological Aspects of Race", American Journal of
Physical Anthropology, Vol. 101, 1996, pp. 569-570.
- American Anthropologicl Association,
"Statement on Race", May 17, 1998.
- Arash Abizadeh,
"Ethnicity, Race and a Possible Humanity", World Order, Fall 2001.
- See the following entries in Wikipedia: Race (classification of human beings),
Social interpretations of race, Racism, Scientific Racism, Whiteness studies, David
- Legal segregation in the South
- Racial Segregation and Jim Crow: after the Civil War in the United States,
various states and local governments passed laws mandating racial separation in
public places, including schools. See Wikipedia article on "Jim Crow laws".
- De facto segregation elsewhere
- The Civil Rights Movement against segregation, for integration,
including in schools
- From legal integration to de facto segregation
- Robert T. Carter; A. Lin Goodwin,
"Racial Identity and Education", Review of Research in
Education, Vol 20(1994) pp. 291-336 (available from Jstor in UT Libraries)
- E. Wayne Ross,
"Introduction: Racism and Anti-Racism in Education"
- Gary Orfield,
"Schools More Separate: Consequences of Resegregation", The Civil
Rights Project, Harvard University, July 2001. The
Civil Rights Project is now at UCLA.
- Johanna Wald and D. Losen,
"Defining and redirecting a school-to-prison pipeline"
- Bob Herbert,
"The School to Prison Pipeline"
Talking Points: The School-to-prison Pipeline"
- Play the
C. Discrimination & Diversity in University Admissions
- Discrimination & Diversity in the Classroom
- Gender bias and differential teaching and treatment of girls and boys
D. Discrimination & Diversity within the University
- The rise of affirmative action in admissions
- The attack on affirmative action and the debate over the role of race in admissions
- The Hopwood Decision, post-Hopwood adjustments
E. Testing: The contemporary debate over standardized testing and
- At the level of students
- the struggle against racism & the rise of Black/Chicano/Asian studies
- the debate over bi-lingual education
- the struggle against patriarchy & the rise of Women's Studies
- Culture Wars, part I: The demand for Multiculturalism
Chapter 3 on Right Wing Attack on Muilticulturalism
- William J. Bennett,
"To Reclaim a Legacy", 1984.
- racial and gender violence on campus & the struggle against it
- At the level of faculty
- Testing throughout the school system, from K-12 to the University
Part VII: The Militarization of Schools
A. Universities and the ROTC
B. Universities and Military Research
- The emergence and spread of ROTC on campus
- The critique and attack on ROTC
C. Patriotism and Militarism
- The emergence and spread of university involvement in military research
- The critique and attack on involvement in military research
- The inculcation of group identity: school spirit
- The inculcation of group identity: patriotism
Part VIII: The Architecture of Education
A. Incarceration: the design of schools & prisons
B. Classroom design: for learning or control?
Part X: Education & Nation Building
A. Education & European Colonialism
B. The Rockefeller General Education Board in the South
C. The Rockefeller Foundation in the Philippines and Mexico
D. The State Department & Post-WWII Nation Building
- Building Nations, Universities and Elites
Part XI: 1960s & 1970s: Student Power and the struggle for
A. From Civil Rights & the Free Speech Movement to the attack
on the subordination of the school to business and the government
B. Case Studies
- the Berkeley Free Speech Movement
- the demand for "relevance", the "personal is political"
- SDS, participatory democracy and the rise of the Anti-Vietnam War Movement
C. Student Struggles at the University of Texas
Who Rules Colombia?
- Cornell and China
- Stanford, SRI and the Pacific Basin
- The University of Michigan and Vietnam
- Anthopology on the Warpath
- Berkeley, MIT and the Indonesian Massacre
- David Ransom, "The Berkeley Mafia and the Indonesian Massacre,"
- Nick Schwellenbach,
Global Sell Out of Education
- Beverly Burr, Student Resistance, The Trajectory of Social Change and
History of UT Activism 1960-88, 1988.
Part XII: The Question of Academic Freedom
A. The emergence of academic freedom
- Traditional controls of academic discourse: church and state
- The struggle for free speech
- Flashback: Immanuel Kant,
"The Conflict of the Philosophy Faculty with the Theology Faculty"
(1794) (Selections), from
his The Conflict of the Faculties, New York: Abaris Books, 1979.
- Flashback: Nietzsche,
"The Future of our Educational Institutions" (1872) (Selections),
w/illustrations]. Re-read only the Fifth Lecture with its discussion of academic freedom.
- AAUP (American Association of University Professors),
1940 Statement of Principles on Academic Freedom and Tenure, w/1970 interpretive comments
- The University of California at Berkeley
Speech Controversy (1964). See especially, part II on the Perspectives of Students, Administrators and Faculty.
B. Constraints: real and prospective
- Limiting voices of dissent: from the outside
Communists Should Not Teach, 1949,
"Academic Freedom, the Crisis of Neoliberalism and the
Epistemology of Torture and Espionage: Some Cautions",
November 12, 2004,
This paper was a contribution to a Roundtable on Attacks on Academic
Freedom, Free Speech, and Free Press sponsored by the Association of
Concerned Africa Scholars (ACAS) during the African Studies Association
meetings in New Orleans on Nov. 12, 2004. Caffentzis is a professor of
philosophy at the University of Maine at Portland, Maine.
- David Horowitz's
Academic Bill of Rights and his
"In Defense of Intellectual Diversity",
The Chronicle of Higher Education, February 13, 2004.
- Horowitz's footsoldiers:
Students for Academic Freedom
Statement on the Academic Bill of Rights,
- David Horowitz's
to the AAUP statement on the Academic Bill of Rights.
- Stanley Fish,
"'Intellectual Diversity: the Trojan Horse of a Dark Design", The Chronicle of Higher Education, February 13, 2004.
- Daniel Denvir,
"Reluctant Foot Soldiers: America's Undergraduates Rebuff Opponents of Academic Freedom," in Academe, journal of the AAUP, issue of
May-June 2003 on "Academic Freedom and National Security."
"What Makes David Run",
The Chronicle of Higher Education, May 6, 2005.
Admits Lack of Evidence for Some Allegations of Faculty Bias"
The Chronicle of Higher Education, January 20, 2006.
Horowitz on the University of Texas
at Austin (with responses), The Daily Texan, February 19, 2007.
- A Recent Case Study: The attack on Ward Churchill
- Ward Churchill's controversial essay on 9/11 as
"Some People Push[ing] Back" (2001). There are many links at the bottom
of this webpage to more information on the controversy provoked by this
- Ward Churchill,
Press Release, Department of Ethnic Studies, University of
Colorado, January 31, 2005.
- Faith Attaguile's
Review of Churchill's book On the Justice of Roosting Chickens
(2003) - a book-length expansion of his original essay.
entry for Ward
Churchill - a variety of background information - of disputed "neutrality."
- Mathew Beaudin,
"Churchill Quits Chairmanship", Daily Camera, February 1, 2005.
- Michelle York,
"Professor is Assailed by Legislature
and Vandals", New York Times, February 3, 2005.
- Emma Perez,
Churchill is Neocon Test Case for Academic Purges", February 15, 2005.
Emma Perez is the Chair of Ethnic Studies at the University of Colorado.
- Scott Smallwood,
"Inside a Free-Speech
Firestorm: How a professor's 3-year-old essay sparked a national
controversy", Chronicle of Higher Education, February 18, 2005.
- Robert Jensen,
"Ward Churchill and 911", The Progressive Trail, February 23,
2005. Bob Jensen is a journalism professor at the University of Texas in
- Jack Miller,
"Paying the Price",
Chronicle of Higher Education, March 25, 2005. Jack Miller was
chancellor at the University of Wisconsin at Whitewater. He is currently
President of Central Connecticut State University.
- Kirk Johnson,
University Changes Its Focus
in Investigation of Professor", New York Times, March 26, 2005.
- Limiting voices of dissent: from the inside
- professional ranking, tenure and merit wage increases
- Herbert Marcuse on Repressive Tolerance
- The debates over "offensive" & "hate" speech
Part XIII: 1980s & 1990s: Neoliberal Counter-reform
A. The Funding of Public Schooling
B. The Debate over Vouchers for K-12
- structure of taxes funding public elementary and secondary schools, who pays?
- state vs local funding & issue of redistribution
- corporate funding & what it buys
- role of NGOs
- Colleges & Universities
- rise of public funding, state and federal
- rise of state universities
- land grant colleges
- federal funding for research, civilian and military
- federal aid to students (from the GI Bill to Pell Grants and
Public Research University
- role of NGOs (Ford, Rockefeller Foundations, etc.)
- Neo-liberalism: the decline in public & the rise in private funding
- tuition & corporate money
- school-corporate partnerships, "Team up with Coca-Cola"
- film: University Inc.
C. The Rise of Charter Schools
- The "crisis of public education" and the performance of schools
- from Leonard Ayres' Index of Efficiency to contemporary debate
- Vouchers and the imposition of market competition
- Milton Friedman,
"The Role of Government in Education" in
Robert A. Solo (ed), Economics and the Public Interest, Rutgers University Press, 1955.
- Milton Friedman,
"Public Schools: Make them Private",
The Washington Post, February 19, 1995.
- Douglas J. Lamdin & Michael Mintrom,
"School Choice in Theory and Practice: Taking
Stock and Looking Ahead," in Education Economics, Vol. 5, No. 3, December 1997.
- The argument against vouchers
D. Public Funding and Private Schools
- The government creation of charter schools in the 1990s
- Debate over charter schools
UT Charter School
E. Back to Basics: from K-12 to the University
- Government support for students in private schools
- Government support for research in private schools
- Government and religious schools
- "Raising standards" - increasing the severity of testing in K-12
- Speed-up, from assembly-line to movement through a program
- No shifting gears: the reduction of choice and speed-up
- Culture Wars, part II: the Right-wing counterattack on multiculturalism
National Association of Scholars: Roll-back" in the Academy
- from Asian Studies back to Orientalism
- wiping out Black, Chicano, Women's and Peace Studies
- Corporations vs Education?
Part XIV: Computer Tech, Distance Learning & Automation
A. The impact of computer technology and the rise of the web on the
structure of education
B. Censorship: what students can and cannot access or circulate.
- Stephan E. Delong,
The Shroud of Lecturing, First Monday (on-line journal), 1995.
- David Noble and Digital Diploma Mills
- David Noble,
Digital Diploma Mills: The Automation of Higher Education, First Monday (on-line journal), 1997
- David Noble,
"The Coming Battle Over Online Instruction", 1998.
- David Noble,
"The Bloom is Off the Rose", 1998.
- David Noble,
"Rehearsal for the Revolution,", 1999.
- David Noble,
"Fool's Gold," 2001.
- Jamie Swift
Interview with David Noble about Digital Diploma Mills.
- Cyberpatrol et al. in schools and public libraries: censorship
is not just for the young.
- Shutting down political web pages at UC San Diego
Part XV: The Search for Alternatives
1. Western Alternatives
A. The individual approach: homeschooling
B. Special schools based on special theories
- John Holt and
Growing without Schooling,
C. Critical Pedagogy
- Maria Montessori & her schools:
The Montessori Foundation,
The American Montessori Society,
The International Montessori Society,
- Rudolf Steiner and the
National Coalition of Alternative Community Schools
D. Deschooling Society
- Paulo Freire's Pedagogy of the Oppressed
2. Non-Western Alternatives
- Ivan Illich,
Deschooling Society and Beyond Deschooling
- Sebatian Gunther,
"Be Masters in That You
Teach and Continue to Learn: Medieval Muslim Thinkers on Educational
Theory," Comparative Education Review, vol. 50, no. 3, 2006.
- Ladislaus Semali,
"Community as Classroom:
Dilemmas of Valuing African Indigenous Literacy in Education,"
International Review of Education, 45 (3/4), 1999.
- Ladi Semali,
Review of Timothy Reagan, Non-Western Educational Traditions: Alternative
Approaches to Educational Thought and Practice, Comparative
Education Review, vol. 45, no. 4, November 2001, pp. 643-646.
- Madhu Suri Prakash and Gustavo Esteva, Escaping Education: Living
as Learning within Grassroots Cultures, New York: Peter Lang, 1998.